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戏说“酒”字在汉英词典中

发布日期:2018-08-27

2014年,美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)曾公布“Top 10”世界十大最爱喝酒的国家(heaviest drinking nations)排名。根据这项排名,中国位于世界第二。看看中国的酒文化,如夏朝的“杜康造秫酒”、商代的“酒色文化”、周代的“酒祭文化”和“酒仪文化”、秦汉年间的“酒政文化”、三国时期的劝酒之风、魏晋南北朝时期的“酒财文化”、唐代的“酒章文化”和“酒催诗兴”、明清两代的“酒域文化”,还有诸多酒礼和酒俗,如元旦饮椒柏酒、正月十五饮填仓酒、端午饮菖蒲酒、中秋饮桂花酒、重阳饮菊花酒,足可成为民俗研究的一部分。

检阅一下有关“酒”的说法,再罗列一下这些说法如何译成英语,饶有趣味。本文选取汉英词典编者们自以为迻译尚有特点的某些表达法,与广大读者共享或请质疑、指谬,权作汉英比较的一席戏说。

 

一、“酒”字的界定

1.“饮料名”之意:① alcoholic drink  wine  spirit(s) liquor

1:美~佳人 fine wine and beautiful women

2:花间一壶~,独酌无相亲。 Holding a pot of wine among the flowers, I drink it all by myself.

3:~被认为既是生活中所有问题的原因,又是解决办法。 Alcohol is considered to be both the cause of, and solution to all of life’s problems.

4:劝君更尽一杯~,西出阳关无故人。 I now urge you to drink up this cup of wine; no friend out beyond West Yangguan will dine and wine you.

2.“饮酒”之意:① to drink wine  to have a drink

例:文王诰教小子有正有事,无彝~。 King Wen admonished and instructed the young nobles charged with office or in any employment that they should not ordinarily consume alcohol.

3.“酒筵”之意:① a feast  a banquet  a treat

1:办一桌~多少钱? How much does a feast cost?

2:几时办婚礼~? When is a wedding feast arranged to take place?

4.“姓”之意:Jiu

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二、“酒”的种类

1.白酒  spirit(s)  liquor

1:~红人面,黄金黑世心。 Just as colourless liquor reddens peoples faces, so yellow gold blackens their hearts.

2:中国人爱喝~,醉了就喝醒酒汤。 Chinese people, who are crazy about alcohol, sober themselves by eating de-intoxicating soup.

2.红酒 red wine

例:品~ sample red wine

3.黄酒  yellow rice wine  yellow millet wine  Shaoxing wine

例:约在三千多年前,中国人就开始大规模酿制~。 Chinese people began to mass-brew yellow rice wine approximately more than 3,000 years ago.

4.米酒 rice wine

例:酿糯~ brew glutinous rice wine

5.葡萄酒 grape wine

例:醇香的~ full-bodied wine

6.烧酒 white liquor

例:~类 high-proof liquors

7.药酒  medicated wine  medicinal liquor

例:调制~ concoct medicated liquor

三、与“酒”有关的词语

1.酒店  a wineshop  a pub  a hotel  an inn  a restaurant

例:~式公寓 a serviced apartment

2.酒色  wine and women  sensual pleasure  flushed complexion after drinkingdrunkenness drunken state colour of wine

1:纵情~  to indulge oneself in sex and alcohol to lead a sensual life

2:~财气  wine, woman, wealth and power  various kinds of evil temptationsall sorts of allurements

3:~纯正。 The wine looks fine and pure.

4:~天  overcast  rainy  wine and women  sensual pleasure

5:~之徒  one who lusts after wine and women one who wallows in wine and women  a libertine  a debauchee

6:~祸之媒。 Alcohol and sex are the agents of disaster.

7:~醉男人。 Wine and women intoxicate men.

3.酒食  food and wine  meals with drink  relishes to go with wine

1:~征逐  to vie in feasting each other  to invite each other to parties

2:有~先生馔,曾是以为孝乎? When the young have wine and food and set them before their elders, is this to be considered filial piety?

3:子有~,何不日鼓瑟? You have spirits and viands; why not daily play with lute?

4.酒水  drinks  beverages and alcohol  a feast  a banquet

1:办了一桌~ to give a feast

2:结婚后补办~ to throw a feast after the marriage

3:~免费。 Drinks are free of charge.

4:这一桌饭菜加~共五百元。 The meal amounts to 500 yuan, beverages included.